pharma sheet #8 - by Mohammad Al-shantir

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pharma sheet #8 - by Mohammad Al-shantir

Post by Shadi Jarrar on 8/10/2010, 5:17 pm

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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Autonomic nervous system

Somatic >>> voluntary movement like skeletal muscles.
Autonomic >>> involuntary (we cannot control it) like heart, glands, GI tract, smooth muscles…etc.
If we want to control it we have to take a drug and that’s known as autonomic pharmacology.
Autonomic pharmacology: its control of autonomic nervous system (involuntary movement inside the body) and that’s mediated by molecules (drugs)….so in case patient with constipation we have to take a drug to change the tone of motility of GI tract.
Definition of synapse: a junctional connection between two neurons, across which a signal can pass…
Synapse it’s the most important site that we have interfere with it…that because there is an action…..neurotransmitter (N.T) it's our target…..our bodies control all organs through N.T…..all action we do in Autonomic pharmacology are antagonizing N.T…either we want to increase (stimulate, agonist) or to reduce (antagonist).

If we want to increase hear rate…we have to increase the activity of adrenaline in the synapse if we want to decrease it, there is two ways:
1- Decrease N.T in synapse (indirect method).
2- Blocking of the N.T receptor, that’s through design compound go to receptor and activate it (direct method).
Pre-synaptic and post-synaptic differ in the type of N.T.
Autonomic N.system :
1- Sympathetic (fight or flight)….pre and post-ganglionic are equal in length, but compare with parasympathetic it can be considered short.
2- Parasympathetic : pre-ganglionic > long…post-ganglionic > short.
Somatic : no ganglion so no junction.
In Autonomic pharmacology if we work on ganglion we will disturb the body, that’s because there is a receptor for Ach and nicotinic…so whatever u give u wont get a good effect… we work on interaction between post-synaptic neuron and the effective organ.
All sympathetic action through : adrenaline and nor-adrenaline except sweat gland (through Ach from sympathetic ganglion).
Function of the Autonomic nervous system

Sympathetic N.system has property of adjusting in response to stressful situation….and that’s affect on:
Saliva...little and viscous
Skin….perspiration, Liver…glyceogenlysis
GI tract…decrease motility
Eyes…dilation for far vission, heart rate increase, lipolysis of fat tissue, high tone in urinary bladder, high blood flow in skeletal muscles.
Parasympathetic N.system maintains essential bodily function…eyes accommodation fo near vision, heart rate decrease, GI motility increased, bronchi constriction, low tone of sphincter in bladder.
We give asthma patient drugs that activate bronchi dilation ….patient with dry mouth (Xerostomia) we give them parasympathetic.
Type of receptor:
1- Cholinergic > ach
2- Adrenergic > adrenaline
3- Dopanergic > dopamine

Cholinergic :
1- Muscarinic R(mAchr) : M1, M2, M3, M5, M4.
M1: in eyes its responsible of dilation.
M3: in heart..dcrease heart rate, if we want to increase heart rate we have to block M1 recepter by Atropine .
Adrenergic :
1- Alpha1: in vessels
2- Alpha2 : in ganglion, when increased adrenergic activity alpha2 work on decrease it (feed back inhibition).
3- Beta2 : in lungs-dilation of bronchi
Adrenaline will re uptake instead of break down, Ach will break down…there is an Enzyme work on it (Ach esterase)….the life time for it is very little.
Nor-adrenaline more than adrenaline in our body.
M1 receptors. Are found mainly in the central nervous system and peripheral neurons as well as gastric parietal cells ( responsible for gastric acid secretion).
The effect are mainly excitatory, a deficiency of this type of Ach mediated effect in the brain is believed to be important as a cause of dementia النسيان)).
M2 receptor, the major location of these receptor is on myocardium (heart) although the can also occur on peripheral neurons, the exert mainly inhibitory effects.

Nicotinic receptors occur at autonomic ganglia located at preganglionic nerve ending of both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves (nicotine is the classical agonist).
Nicotinic receptor stimulation produces its effect by opening an ion channel linked to the receptor…and tubocurarine blocks nicotinic receptor in striated muscle abd autonomic ganglia.
Alzheimer patient we give them drugs Manipulated the balance of Ach within nervous system..and that’s not effective.

Done By:
Mohammad Al-ShantIR
Shadi Jarrar
مشرف عام

عدد المساهمات : 997
النشاط : 12
تاريخ التسجيل : 2009-08-28
العمر : 27
الموقع : Amman-Jordan

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