sheet micro # 1

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sheet micro # 1

Post by Shadi Jarrar on 24/9/2010, 10:43 pm

on this link:


Microbiology :is the study of organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye (without magnification)

♫ microbiology includes the study of bacteria, viruses ,fungi ,protozoa ,helminthes (worms),algae and some multicellular parasites.

♫Robert Koch considered as the father of microbiology (anthrax, TB, cholera) .

♫protozoa: unicellular

worms : multicelluar

♫the definition of microbiology is not very accurate because it include non living cells like viruses and include non microorganisms like parasites .

♫ Bacteriology : study of bacteria.
Mycology : study of fungi
Parasitology: study of protozoa and parasitic worms .
Virology : study of viruses ( consider as new science ) .

Chemotherapy :
♫treatment of disease by using chemical means .

♪ antibiotic
Naturally >> produced by living organisms like penicillin which produced by fungi .
Synthetic >> produced in labs like sulfa drugs .

♫ The father of chemotherapy is " Paul Ehrlich " >>>use arsenic " magic bullet " .

♫chemotherapy faces problems :

- Toxicity of drugs >>selective toxicity like ( penicillin ) .

- Resistance of bacteria to drugs .

Branches of study within microbiology :

1. immunology ( although it is not part of it , it is considered as separate science that deals with the protection and prevention form infection and diseases that are caused by microorganisms .

2.public health microbiology and epidemiology .,diary and aquatic among population .

4.biotechnology (ex. Production of methane to be used as energy source )

5.genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology .

Microorganisms are involved in many uses :
a. nutrient production and energy flow .
b. decomposition
c. food production (ex. Mushroom which is sac-fungi)
d. production of hormones and vaccines and can serve as positive agent to diseases .
e. genetic engineering

Recombinant DNA technology :
- Recombinant DNA.
- Genetic engineering / biotechnology .
- microbial genetics – mechanism by which microbes inherit genes .
- molecular biology – related 2 the structure .

microorganisms classified into 2 types :

1.prokaryotes ( ex. Bacteria )

2. eukaryotes (ex. fungi)

♫ The most imp. Difference btn Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes is the lack of true nucleus in Prokaryotes
It have DsDNA not surrounded by nuclear membrane and doesn’t have mitotic apparatus .

♫ Prokaryote is the smallest living organisms
most bacteria have size range between .5 to 2.0 micron . however ,some can be 40 or some may reach to 60 .

☺Prions and viruses which are the cause of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies like cow mad disease in humans or animals can be calssified an prokaryotes or eukaryotes .

☺Prions are proteins that are transmitted to animal or humans and causes diseases

☺viruses lack the characterstics of living organisms although have the capacity to multiply outside host cell ,and they must be in ahost cell to replicate and lack some structures like Golgi apparatus & mitochondria .

The most important thing about prokaryotes that they have cell wall but eukaryotes have not cell wall .

♫♫ all bacteria have cell wall ,which important for the protection of structures inside it, except mycoplasma .

♫ prokaryotes are smaller in size than eukaryotes .

♫ prokarytes have many structures which not present in eukaryotes and most important one to mention is cell wall

♫ prokaryotes have ribosomes mainly in their cytoplasm .

♫ prokaryotes have many structures in their cell wall which aren’t present in eukaryotic cells as :
_Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) which have protective function for thr organisms ,although there some are very toxic to the host cell and that why they called endotoxins

_ endopores (which bacteria through it can transfer from active replicating to non active replicating form )

_ cicular DNA .

_ plasmids: extra chromosomal genetic material ( cicular DNA that are double stranded in nature anad can vary in size and number) , which present in cytoplasm .

_ transposons : extra chromosomal genetic material that can change sites from plasmid to chromosome and that why they called transposons .

Bacterial Classification
Bacteria are classified according to :

- Morphologic characteristic ( shape of bacteria ) .
- Biochemical characteristic ( CG content DNA , RNA )
- Genus and species of primary .

♫ bacteria are classified as genus and specie , a more detailed classification classify them according to the stain . (gram +ve , -ve )

♫ The Genus should be Capitalized but the specie shoud be in small letter both of them should be underlined or italics may be used .

♫♫♫ THE END♫ ♫♫
Done by:
Abeer Al abadi
Dana Alomoush
Shadi Jarrar
مشرف عام

عدد المساهمات : 997
النشاط : 12
تاريخ التسجيل : 2009-08-28
العمر : 26
الموقع : Amman-Jordan

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