Preventive Sheet #5 By Mohammad Bader

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Preventive Sheet #5 By Mohammad Bader

Post by Sura on 9/3/2012, 2:28 am

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Re: Preventive Sheet #5 By Mohammad Bader

Post by Shadi Jarrar on 9/4/2012, 11:03 pm

In this lecture we are going to talk about the role of fluoride in preventive dentistry.
The most important things for prevention of dental caries are:
1) Diet
2) Plaque control
3) Fluoride
4) Fissure sealing

Now what is fluoride?
Fluoride is the ionic form of the element fluorine, in its pure form it’s actually a poisonous yellow gas, and it’s difficult to take it out from nature because it likes to bind to other positive ions.
It is the 13th most abundant mineral in the earth’s crust; we see it in water and fish.
Fluoride in most foods are low, but there are some rich sources of fluoride like in Tea which is known to have high levels of fluoride (0.1-0.6 mg/100ml), and Fish (sardines).
As we said before fluoride likes to bind to positive ions, it likes to go to bone and teeth because of the calcium (which is a positive ion).
If we looked at the history of fluoride in dentistry, it started in 1892 by Sir James Crichton Browne, he noticed that people that eat brown bread (which contains more fluorine) have lower levels of caries than those who eat white bread.
Later on in Colorado in the U.S.A, they discovered Colorado stain which is a white flecks, paper-white like china dish, they noticed that they are less susceptible to caries than those who had a normal appearance of enamel, after investigations and epidemiological studies, they believed that there was something in the water supply that was causing this kind of stain.
In another state, Arkansas in the U.S.A, they noticed that there are high levels of fluoride in the water in this state to a level of 13.7 ppm (part per million) (above 1 ppm we consider it high).

Another person you have to know, Trendly Deen 1939, he looked at epidemiology for caries and fluoride, and he found that 50% less caries in fluoridated areas than areas with no fluoride in the water.

How does fluoride prevent caries (mechanism of action):
- Pre-eruptive
- Post-eruptive

Pre-eruptive:
When the fluoride is ingested while the tooth is forming, the fluoride will incorporate into the mineral and then we’ll have some benefits like improving tooth morphology, it will give you more rounded cusps, more shallow incline and more favorable fissure pattern. The problem is when we looked at these morphological changes, you get these changes at concentrations that are 100 times more than the optimal fluoridated communities that we talked about. So as you can see, pre-eruptive effect does not affect tooth morphology. Now as we said the fluoride is incorporated while the tooth is forming, so in theory it should give us an enamel structure that is more chemically resistant to caries, but unfortunately, they noticed that when the fluoride is incorporated while the tooth is forming it doesn’t actually affect the acid solubility. So again, pre-eruptive effect is MINIMAL.

Post-eruptive:
How does it work topically?
1) By inhibiting the demineralization process.
2) Promotes remineralization.
3) Inhibition of bacterial activity (enzymes) in plaque.

Enamel as you know is made up of:
- Minerals (85%)
- Protein/lipid (3%)
- Water (12%)
You need to know that it’s not completely pure; there are impure aspects in the hydroxyapatite, one of the impurities that are found in the enamel is carbonate (co3).


Acid solubility ranking
Most soluble in acid
• Carbonated apatite


• Hydroxyapatite


• Fluoroapatite
Least soluble in acid

Now why fluoroapatite is more resistant?
- Fluoride substituting the OH is a more stable and a better fit in the crystal.
- Increases crystallite size.
- Decreases strain.

Demineralization:

Acid that is fermented from the bacteria when it reaches the critical PH (5.5) it will dissolve the crystal so we’ll have demineralization which is removal of the minerals from the enamel. The minerals that are removed are calcium, phosphate and carbonate.
If we have fluoride at low levels around the tooth, it will adsorb to the crystal surface, so we will get a very thin fluoride rich veneer of enamel on the enamel surface. With the presence of this layer of enamel, the solubility will be shifted downwards, so it will need more acid to demineralize (lower PH).

Remineralization:
The return of minerals (calcium and phosphate) from the saliva to the enamel to give us the enamel crystal (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2). When there is fluoride in the saliva, it will form Fluorapatite (Ca10(PO4)6F2 + 2OH) which is more resistant to caries.


Inhibition of bacterial activity:
Fluoride in the environment binds with hydrogen and enters the bacteria and inhibits a certain enzyme (Enolase) and that ends up with killing the bacteria.

REMEMBER:
- Fluoride presents in solution at low levels amongst the enamel crystals can markedly inhibit dissolution of tooth mineral by acid.
- 0.03 ppm is where remineralization is enhanced, but the optimum concentration is 0.08 ppm.
So our goal here is to maintain a low level of fluoride to inhibit demineralization, to promote remineralization and to inhibit the bacteria.
Fluoride can be retained at a concentration between 0.03 and 0.1 for 2 to 6 hours depending on the product and the individual.
One of the things that you should advice your patients of is not to rinse the toothpaste immediately after brushing.

Fluoride Modalities:

Topical Systemic
*Home -fluoridated water
-Toothpaste - Drops
- Mouth rinse -Tablets
-Salt
*Chairside - Milk
-Gels
- varnish
Now as we said that the systemic effect of fluoride is insufficient to cause any prevention of caries, and we said that countries that have fluoridated water have a decrease in caries, how do you explain it?
Answer: it acts as a topical effect while drinking the water, so it works topically not systemically.

New developments:
-fluoride releasing intraoral devices
- dental materials that release fluoride, like glass ionomer.

Problems with systemic intake:
-Toxicity
-Fluorosis

The End

Done By: Mohammad Bader
Preventive sheet # 5
Dr. Hawazen
6/3/2012



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Shadi Jarrar
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عدد المساهمات : 997
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تاريخ التسجيل : 2009-08-28
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