community sheet # 6 of Dr Ma9'i - Bara'a Al-khateeb

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community sheet # 6 of Dr Ma9'i - Bara'a Al-khateeb

Post by Shadi Jarrar on 6/5/2011, 4:40 am

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Lec # 6

Today we will talk about the environment impact for carbolatance and pollution
We have some effects on the environment regarding the atmosphere

Atmosphere that we are living in it called what??
Answer: troposphere, we living in the troposphere this few millimeters from ground up to 16km

Now if we go higher (more than 16 km) we have something called stratosphere; this is above our troposphere and this where we have what we called the ozone layer.
Above that (50 km also) then we have ionosphere; this is a v.high altitude.

So, usually we are in the troposphere sometimes we might skip to the stratosphere by certain…… we can reach that level and what we do here as contaminants it might survive or keep going up until we reach the stratosphere

One of the major effects of air pollutant in our atmosphere or environment:-

1- It will affect precipitation

This what we are noticing nowadays
We have change in pattern of rain in different part of word; one reason behind this might be due to air pollution

2- Discoloration

Even color of stratosphere translucent atmosphere we start to see color inside it and this color depend on the type of p pollutant that we have

-some pollutants such as enox , lasodioxide they will give brownish , yellow-brown discoloration to the atmosphere , this can be see easily in some industries countries

-in the evening before sun set, we start to see brownish or first yellow-brownish color it depends now much contaminants in the atmosphere

Again ( return back to the major effects of air pollution :-

3 – Haziness

This haziest can be documenting in photos , when u are take a photo for ur friend in certain days is not clear picture do the same picture in place with less pollutant it become more clear
What we see between different two pictures is haziness , and this again a sort of pollutants .

4 – Interfering with visibility

We not be able to see enough distance. This is imp. When we talking about navigation
We talk about air plans we need good distances ( good vision ) at least 7 miles to be able to see , otherwise we start have a problem coz we know plans going in a fast way , then we don’t have enough vision , visibility we might be have an accident

This was arson behind changing the damping areas for Amman, sold waste damping area from Marka area to the new area which in Resaifah area coz that was closed to old air pollutants and pilot start to complain from problem in visibility during lading due to this air pollutant coming out of this damping areas .

So , these effect are restricted to the atmosphere these are the variation and changes

Now we have 3 major effects in general environment:-

- green house phenomena

- u need green house phenomena to protect sensitive plants during winter from bad ( cold ) wither

- what's happing that is the glasses in the green house allow the sun light ( u.v ) to get in and now as inside this glasses start to warmer

It tend to lose some of temp. to the surrounding by radiation , and it will irradiate some of eat through I.R ( infrared )

What the difference between infrared and U.V ?
U.V can penetrate glass but infrared cont so it well reflect back inside glass we have build up of heat inside the green glass and this good , we need it

But is this good when it happens to the environment?
No , if it happens at the level of environment then we have a problem

What happen?

Some gases we called then green house gages they will act the same kind of glass they the U.V to get in and prevent infrared to get out , so something getting in without getting out so the heat build up inside earth and is dangerous
-know in fact less be clear about this we need some of this phenomena is good at the beginning we need warming coz otherwise we go to frozen, But the problem is when we exceed certain limit

Nowadays warming more than what we need so if we talk about the ice cap in different places of the world start to melt which is dangerous.

- we have expansion of the water in the sea and occasions again floods
(مثل ظاهرة العواصف ، تسونامي )

All of these phenomena it might be resulting from having different temp. in the sea water

- cold water coming in a currant it will face the hot water from another currant and to move in each other and creating volcanoes as example and these rapid movement of water will create vacuum pressure in between them and they start to damage the plants

For example , some countries have specific time for volcano other have a tornadoes ( hot water , hot air coming contact with cold air and they will doing it over the land not over the sea

So , those measure event that one out come of these heat up so we have flood , wither changes

Again the movement of rain it will change coz as place become more hot the weaves among we talk the clouds move some where else . so start to rain less in some places and more ( much than usual ) in anthers places .

It's bad for the first one they start to have drought and it is bad to other places where they start to floods and this what we see nowadays

Theses phenomena not only in Jordan its every where

We have many gases that called green house gases which responsible for these phenomena

What are these gages ( green house gases ) ?

1- Co2

-responsible from more than 60% of what is happening

-from complete combustion for methane that contain carbon ( form industry , house…etc )

2- Methane

-animals with 4 stomach have some sort of methane producing bacteria in their bodies inside and they produce huge amount of methane.

We are not the only one , any where when we have organic materials stay for long time they start to have methane producers

Again damping areas ( ) methane can grow with them and they can produce huge amount of methane
So methane is under compound they start to produce problem , co2 has more rice

What the different between hambuger and green house phenomena ?

As more as people need hambuger means we need more cows and more cattles and produce more and more of this methane .

We know variation in meet consumptions in different planes in the word ,America as example consume 60 times more need than average of any part of word so it use huge amount of meet need more cattles to has more problem


At the beginning which close to earth it get the same phenomena it act as green house gas for while before start to getting up stares and ozone layer

4- ozone layer

- it bad down good up

- ozone can be come out as a secondary pollutant
primary pollutants : co , co2 , enox , esox

** secondary pollutant: ozone

- ozone produce not from it sours as such It will produce to the atmosphere due to rxn between enox compound to another components of the atmosphere and this is oxidation rxn one of them out com is the ozone

- then we have water paper
More water paper it will help in this phenomenon so these gases together plus water paper act green house phenomena and they can allow U.V to penetrate and they don’t allow infrared to get out so we are warming up and this is damaging the environment

- if the temp. elevate 3-4 degree it might be end of the word ,coz other kind of floods they start affect different kind of plants .

Plants life depend on the heat (how much heat we have ) and some crops might sensitive to heat and start to lose them .

After a period of time the map of word will change, the desert move up and disease better will affected

Eg : Africa live with sever sickness coz it is warm but what hapen if get warm in Europe? Europe become hot and it has Africa sever sickness so people start to move from this place and coz they will not found place that support there living there is no rain , no water and a lot of problem and they go to somewhere else ,they start to have worse .

- all the said might be damaging total plant and that’s why we have what we called it air summit? it was 1992 in (redo jenarw??)
And it was followed by keyoto?? agreement where by this keyoto agreement from Japan they agree to sign it where by all these deplored countries start to work in their industry and produced the speed of productivity ( produce burn )

- every body sign it except U.S refuse to sign it , no American president would like to be as the reason for slowing down the industry or the economy

- so this a major problem unless people work together

another problem that enhance the environment ( this problem is cutting down trees )

** what is the relation between cutting trees and green house phenomena ?

Trees is the sink for co2 , if we have a good cover of trees than we have less co2 as soon as start to cut trees than we have less and less trees to take this co2 and we start to have more and more build up of co2 and this is what we doing actually where cutting ,demonstration is taking palace world wide people are using

- our building in Jordan in agriculture areas we remove trees and start to build up so we don’t have forests, demonstration take place 5 hundred years ago beyond the autumnal envier where cut down the trees for the sake of building up
again demonstrations another major thing that help in this phenomena and they enhance it

- So we not talking about one country isolation and am away from these sink you might be a factor it produce it or u are affect by it from other countries
(مثل موجات البرد والحر التي تأتينا من اصل اروبي او قطبي)

If this phenomena happing in Europe then it might have changing in the direction of wind and now we are losing these rain

- so , this is one of the major problem world wide and one of the people that use this phenomena is the (algor?)
He explain how long loss of ice cap and how it dangerous just show what he had documented and what he believed it.

this is # 1 ( global warming)

pH of our rain about 6.8
pH must be 5.4 -- 5.6

-this is specific meaning for acid rain coz at this pH(I think 6.8) many creatures cant be able to survive including fish and sea fans we start have a rain with lower pH then 5.4 we start have problem the water change into acidic in lakes and fish and different creatures start to die

- now we cant stand the edge of cretin lakes in southern part of Canada and Sweden and we see the bottom of the lakes , this not healthy , if we can see the bottom of the lake that is mean no life

This mean acid rain damage lake, it not only damaging the lakes or seas , it can damage the forests as will

- we mention this in the last lec that lake can be affected by acid materials such as sulferdioxide and this is one of them

- Know from where we get this acid rain ?

We have different sources one of them :

1- evaporation of acid from industries as such H2So4
-majority of time we have So4 or No2 release from different sours by burring by different sours of use energy and as they start to come they will combined with water changing into S2So4 or HNO3

Why the relationship of pH and acidic reverse?

If we are more H concentration this means more acidic and the pH lower than usual

PH = -log{h}

know that clolofloro compound damage the ozone layer , it is not the only material that damage the ozone layer we have enox compounds airplanes that they fly v.high close to the stratosphere they produce large amount of enox

- the way that ozone is produced in the atmosphere its involve the rxn
NO2 +O2 O3 + NO

Know if we have more No2 than it (the rxn ) will be coming back

The rxn go reverse and now O start to act to another O. and forming O2 rather than O3
O + O. O2

So we reverse the rxn we don’t need much of these materials

- when we have rockets they go up and penetrate these atmosphere they can pass through these layer and produce enox compound close to these area

- so these experiment they do , airplanes that they penetrate and go on the upper atmosphere plus chlorofluorocarbons work together

That we have a Montréal , meeting we have signing an agreement where by people start to work in cutting down the amount of cloroflocarbon and reduce the amount flight of airplane close to these areas to reduce of this infect

What happen if we have loss of this ozone protection layer ?

1-it cause a cancer
2- affect our immune system(make it low)
3- it might have a cataract

Cataract as well as affect immune system as well as cancer are out comes of having ozone layer depletion

Another major problem that comes out what we are doing as pollution of our environment

Last thing

Impact of air pollution in our position such as rowing

if u lock at pyramids like(abo elhol) and people have follow up what happen to them in this lost 40 or 50 years they (therulated??) more than thousands of year ago, one reason whey they damage that sulferdioxide and enox they change insoluble stones into soluble material

Normal stone made of calcium carbonate will start react with SO2 it change into calcium sulfate

Calcium carbonate is precipitate material but calcium sulfate is soluble material
So, as rain fall thy start to have opening and holes on this place (ozone layer ) and damage it, it not only in Ejept it happen word wide and we start to lose some of these rowing which they become priceless we can't afford losing them by again they have been damaged by this phenomenon u lose ur house value if u built it close a high way become dark in color or u start to lose it and then u loss the value of ur house

- Some specialists who calculate how much we loss every year die to plants, animals, human diseases and illnesses coming out of air pollution

The end

Done by :
Baraah Al-khateeb
Shadi Jarrar
مشرف عام

عدد المساهمات : 997
النشاط : 12
تاريخ التسجيل : 2009-08-28
العمر : 26
الموقع : Amman-Jordan

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Re: community sheet # 6 of Dr Ma9'i - Bara'a Al-khateeb

Post by Haneen Thnebat on 7/5/2011, 2:17 am

Corrections community sheet 6

Page 2: line 21: this was( a reason)

Page 3: line 10 :some of (heat)
Line 19: we called (them)
Line 20: they (allow) the U.V
Line 22: and (this) is dangerous
Line 23: (now) in fact

Page 5: line 3: bacteria (inside their bodies and they produce……)
Line 5: (they are)
Line 10: (because has more rice)
Line 15: in different (places) not planes

Page6: line 26:(developed) not deplored

Page 8: line10: now (if we stand on the…….)
Line 22 :(H2SO4) not S2SO4

Page 9 :line 8: (then the rxn will be……..)

Page 10 : line 16 (pyramids) not ozone layer

Baraah AL-khateeb
Haneen Thnebat

عدد المساهمات : 152
النشاط : 6
تاريخ التسجيل : 2009-09-09

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