community sheet # 3 of Dr.ma9’i - leen Kutachi

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community sheet # 3 of Dr.ma9’i - leen Kutachi

Post by Shadi Jarrar on 21/4/2011, 4:19 am

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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http://www.4shared.com/document/pUHL-MeN/communityleenJude.html

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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Today we will talk about uses of water

1) The first use of course is for
drinking purposes, how much should we drink? 1,2,3L? actually there is no answer because it depends on many factors including environmental conditions, physical conditions(if he is healthy or not),the kind of exercise he is doing(if someone is driving in hot weather you expect from him to drink 1 or 2 liters, but if he is sitting in his office where there is an air condition system he can be satisfied with 2 liters),so the amount varies diabetics patients have to drink more ,kidney failure patients have to drink less ,infants have to drink more water compared to their body size than adults( so age is another factor),food habits people who eats salty food consumes more water. so all this makes the amount of water we drink varies from 2 litters to 9 litters(if you where followed by a lion in a dessert in Africa) ,and we loose water by urination ,sweating and breathing(by taking dry air and exhaling air vapor(humid air)).
-majority of us doesn’t have the habit of making themselves wet all the time, but other cultures they make sure to keep themselves wet all the time and they don’t keep themselves dry.
-if you forget yourself working all the day without drinking water you will end up with having stones in your kidney and the solution is to drink water


-2) the second use is for domestic uses, (home living, house living) we measure it by litters per capital per day L/C/D, how much water do we use for? actually it varies on the socio-economic status of the country, in Jordan it is 40-70 L/C/D (if u wants to count it 1 cubic litter is 1000 L, divide by 30 to get the amount for one day out of a month and number of people at home) that’s depends on country size and instrument and machines you are using at home like dishwasher, clothes washer

-while in developed countries it is 300-700 L/C/D and 700+ in USA because of the heavy flushing system in sinks to get rid of food remains stuck in the drains and because of the toilet flush system which is about 9 L each time and the machines like the washing machine which takes 40-50 L per run, swimming pools ,jacoosies……so in this case:
1. The person is capable to pay for this water
2. The government is capable to find the source of this water so there is a lot of epidemiology and efforts.

-3) Agriculture consumes 70% of the total water of the world( so it is the number 1 use) in a country like Jordan it is impossible to grow rice or sugar canes because these kinds needs to be covered with water ,in Jordan we use the dripping system to grow vegetables and Jordan is a pioneer in that, 2 years ago Jordan was advised to stop growing bananas(small bananas named dipple bananas) bcs it needs a lot of water and no other countries ask for it they all ask for (big bananas named tissue bananas) so(tjara 5asera)

-4) Industry , if we look at the balance of water in a country how much it has from rain, surface water and inside water to the amount they consume this can tell if the country is industrialized or not, Jordan uses only 5% of water for industry so it is not industrialized country bcs there is no other sources for water but in USA we find that 90% of industrial water goes for cooling purposes so heavy industry and there is nuclear stations and they use water to cool these stations like in Japan










Water Contamination

We have many sources of contamination like cities, people, industrial activities, recreational activities, agriculture activities if we look at these contaminant we can divide them into 3:

a. biological
b.chemical
c.physical

and if water get contaminated(with these contaminants) we will have Water Related Diseases, 80% of all diseases in the third world countries are water related, and the most contaminant is biological like microbes, cholera was found in USA sea hundred several years ago but now they are capable of separating human wastes from water bcs they have excellent sewage system so no way to have cholera


water related diseases are divided to 5 categories:

1.water born diseases: the microbe that cause the disease is found in water and we have to drink that water to have this disease..
Microbes like cholera ,salmonella,typhoid,paratyphoid,poliomyelitis(this one especially the water has to be very freshly contaminated bcs this virus cannot live long in water),askares,hepatitis, so bacteria viruses parasites…any microbe that can live in water.


Water is a quality problem here bcs there is microbes

How can we suspect that this water is contaminated (like if we have a typhoid outbreak ie.more than 25 cases in a year)?
We take a sample and send it to the lab and ask for an indicator which is the coliform test if it was –ve then there is no typhoid no cholera ,,nothing safe water has zero coli form test (so no viruses /bacteria in this water)

Another test we can do is Chlorine level bcs it is a disinfectant so they put chloride in the pipes in a specific amount but actually they put little more bcs there is a possibility that these pipes have some cracks but that actually doesn’t cause a problem as long as we have steady water i.e. Positive pressure but as long as this water stops there will be a –ve pressure inside the pipe which allows contaminant to enter(like from sheep remnant called zoonetic) so that’s why they put extra chlorine so we will have residual chlorine in our water if we measure it it would be 0.5 PPM (part per million or milligram per liter of water) if they found zero then there is a source of contamination somewhere.

ROS is another test Reverse Osmosis which is the opposite of the normal osmosis bcs it crosses the membrane from the area of low pressure to the one with high pressure and sometimes it is supplied with UV light station.

Ozone treated water (like in water bottles) so there using ozone rather than chlorine stronger disinfectant but it is more expensive

2.water washed out diseases
You can reduce the incidence of these diseases by giving the consumer more water,so this will affect my hygienic behavior so you might not clean your vegetable in the appropriate manner you might not clean your face and your eyes bcs you don’t have enough water. These are of two groups cholera ,typhoid,paratyphoid,hepatitis, askaris not found in water but in vegetables bcs of bad irrigation systems like dirty water ,sewage system specially to vegetables like tomatos, lettuce,,,,grow near soil
So it is a Quantity problem
Story,,,,,,last and largest cholera outbreak in Jordan was1992 in 3yn el ghasal when the fist station for sewage system recycling then used for irrigation
محطة تنقية مياه عادمه
was designed by one of the best designers (who worked by book) but it couldn't work here bcs it wasn’t capable to sustain all these amounts of sewage which is 900 in Jordan and much less in the designer home country.


So we do coli form test and if it was –ve then it is water washed out disease and if it was +ve then find other sources

3.water based diseases
The microbe that causes the disease Spend part of its life cycle in an aquatic creature like belharsia which completes its life cycles in bolimus snails(intermediate host),and it enters the body by penetrating the skin so it get out with the waste of infected person then has to enter a snail so these belharsia eggs complete their live cycle then penetrate the skin of another person who is swimming in a snail contaminated river as an example. belharsia causes 200 million cases every year in third world countries while the first two groups causes 400 million cases.
So belharsia is mainly found in places where they use flooding or covering irrigation so gardeners easily can get bilharzias.

Another example is liver flukes which are found in the fish affects people who eat raw fish like china, Japan…




4. Insect vector water related diseases

-The vector is a mosquito carrying a diseases like malaria (malaria is a wrong word which means mal air then they discovered (by a Mexican leader Farami??) that a mosquito which causes it)
We have to wait for this mosquito several days before bcs there is asexual life cycle inside the material found inside the body of the mosquito.

So what is the role of water here? These mosquitoes lay their eggs in the water then larva forms.

There is no local malaria in Jordan since1970, only imported cases coming from other countries so we are not eradicating it we are controlling it only.

Half million case of malaria each year in third world countries. and after they where able to control malaria now it is back

Bengi fever –
Yellow fever-
-Japanese encephalitis
-River blindness caused by black flight which lives in water(lay their eggs) and in the body they change to worms which creep inside and damage the optic nerve.if contaminated water was used in irrigation million cases will show.150 million people at risk to develop this blindness.
-African sleeping sickness by tsisi, humididity of the water is needed, actually it is not sleeping it is CNS coma






5. Water dispersed diseases

-Those are microbes transmitted by Droplets of water (splash) like Liginila comes from air-condition (water in the air condition) and when you breathe it causes pneumonia
, It causes nosocomial infection (acquired in hospital)
if the hospital is with AC system .

-another thing here if a person who had an accident when he was young and his base of skull was little fracture he might have encephalitis if he swim in a warm water in winter and gets some microbes by breathing.

-Swimmers itch, either bcs of allergic reaction to chlorine or bcs of microbes that entered your body


So these 5 categories are causes of 80% of diseases in the third world countries, so we have to clean the water and be careful that it doesn’t harbor these microbes, if we are talking about snails then you have to move the water you can't keep stagnated water bcs it will cause problems.

Prevalence of malaria in women in Jordan is higher than men




Good Luck



DONE BY:Leen Qutachi
3RD lec/Dr.Maddi
29/3/2011
avatar
Shadi Jarrar
مشرف عام

عدد المساهمات : 997
النشاط : 12
تاريخ التسجيل : 2009-08-28
العمر : 26
الموقع : Amman-Jordan

http://jude.my-rpg.com

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